Excel Basics and the IF Function
What is the IF Function
Excel’s IF function is one of simplest and most useful spreadsheet functions. It can fill cell fields for you based on evaluating a condition. The wizard-like function requires you to fill 3 data elements:
Field |
Definition |
Logical_test |
A test on a cell value that is either TRUE or FALSE |
Value_if_true |
The value Excel will put in a cell if the test is true |
Value_if_false |
The value Excel will put in a cell if the test fails |
Despite not having Microsoft Excel, my parents routinely employed this type of logic when calculating my allowance. Their version read:
IF you empty the garbage AND mow the lawn AND wash the dishes AND walk the dog, you get your full allowance. And since I grew up in New England, this logic would change with the seasons to account for things like leaves and snow.
Setting Up the IF Function
Although Excel can’t issue an allowance, it can calculate the amount using a logic test based on whether a cell met a condition. For example, I could create a spreadsheet with the tasks needed to get an allowance. If the task was completed, (TRUE situation) a value would be applied toward the allowance. If the task wasn’t completed, (FALSE situation), nothing would be added. These examples are noted by labels (1) and (2) in the screen snap below.
Using the example above, you might express the logic in the following way:
IF cell B2 equals “Y”, then use the rate value in cell C2 in cell D2
IF cell B2 does not equal “Y”, then place 0 in cell D2
To enter an IF function in a cell (Excel 2003),
1. Set up your Excel spreadsheet
2. Click in the cell where you would like to place the IF function. In my example, I used the Allowance column.
3. From the Insert menu, select Function… The Insert Function dialog appears.
Note: For Excel 2007 Users: Click the Formulas tab and then the Insert Function button.
4. In the Search for a function: field type “if”.
5. Click Go.
6. Click OK. The Function Arguments dialog appears.
To enter your IF Function Arguments,
1. Make sure your cursor is in the Logical_test textbox.
2. Click the spreadsheet cell you wish to evaluate. Excel will fill in the cell address such as “B2”
3. Append the equals sign and your desired value in quotes. For example =”Y”.
4. In the Value_if_true field, type the value you would like entered in your cell if B2 equals “Y”. In our example, I’ll click cell C3.
5. In the Value_if_false: field enter the value the cell should have if B2 does not have a “Y”. I’ll enter 0. I could leave it blank, but the cell would show "FALSE"
6. Scan the dialog to see if the Formula result= value (label 1 below) is what you expect. If not, check to see if any errors show to the right of the fields (label 2 below).
7. Click OK.
8. Copy the formula to the other cells in your column.
But….but…what If…
The above spreadsheet might have been Version 1 for my parents. A new incentive program would appear based on some parent/child negotiations and neighborhood rates. I probably would’ve fought for pay on partial tasks. No doubt, my parents would counter with a penalty clause if something was less than half done.
Excel is flexible when it comes to IF statements and can evaluate more than a simple “Y” or “N”. For example, if we convert our previous Done? column to a % Done column with a number, we can accommodate these new requirements.
The new formula is basing the allowance off the % Done column. If the task completion number is greater than .5, a prorated amount was applied to the allowance. If the task completion rate was .5 or below, a negative amount was applied to the allowance. Loosely translated, a “half assed” performance cost money.
Excel’s IF function is a versatile and useful function. Once you get the hang of it, you’ll start using it in more complex scenarios. The examples presented here were foundational. But you can use IF functions to handle transactions such as applying sales tax, shipping charges or even nested IF functions with Boolean logic. And if you have kids, let them build the Excel spreadsheet and give them a bonus for using the IF function.
Editor's Note: The rates and tasks displayed in this sample have no bearing to current day costs or job assignments.
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Last Updated (Friday, 18 June 2010 18:33)